Make Suggestions for Further Research You may choose to conclude the discussion section by making suggestions for further research [this can be done in the overall conclusion of your paper]. A highly focused, lively presentation that calls the reader's attention to the most salient and interesting findings is most effective Bem, Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate].
There was a significant correlation between extroversion and life satisfaction. Most relevant threats to external validity include sample bias and specific characteristics of the sample that limit generalization of findings Drotar, b. Leave the reader feeling like this is an important topic Possible causes and consequences of the results are discussed.
Several preliminary studies conducted in the past several years suggest that exposure-based therapy can be used in individuals with cooccurring SUDs and PTSD as long as careful attention is paid to substance use.
Define all abbreviations and acronyms. See your APA manual, textbook and the sample paper for examples of how to cite and how to make a reference list.
Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. You should write a direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results, usually in one paragraph. These results are inconsistent with prior research indicating that interruptions negatively affect task performance.
For this reason, it is also very helpful for authors to inform reviewers about the limitations of their research that should be addressed in future studies and specific recommendations to accomplish this.
Also show how the findings provide new or different insights into what was already known. Future directions may also include interesting next steps in the research.
Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important Consider the likelihood that no one has thought as long and hard about your study as you have. What are the most important implications for clinical care and policy?
In less than words your abstract should describe: Results can take the form of data, hypotheses, models, definitions, formulas, etc. It is likely that the current increasing demand for mental health services in VA and Department of Defense settings will require the implementation of treatments that have not been adequately investigated or alternatively, as in the current study, that treatments with adequate empirical support will be modified or otherwise flexibly implemented in an attempt to meet the needs of veterans.
Where possible, support your speculation with references. Elaborate on all possibilities: In doing so, you should relate the results to the theories you introduced in the Introduction. Ensure that your abstract correctly reflects the purpose and content of your paper. Avoid using an apologetic tone; however, be honest and self-critical [e.
If appropriate, the discussion section is also where you state how the findings from your study revealed new gaps in the literature that had not been previously exposed or adequately described, and Engage the reader in thinking critically about issues based upon an evidence-based interpretation of findings; it is not governed strictly by objective reporting of information.
Make sure that all references mentioned in the text are also mentioned in the reference list and vice versa. Use of the first person is generally acceptable. Don't wildly speculate, however! Report rather than evaluate: In the case of a correlational project, be careful to not use causal language to discuss your results — unless you did an experiment you cannot infer causality.
Describe Implications of Findings for New Research One of the most important features of a discussion section is the clear articulation of the implications of study findings for research that extends the scientific knowledge base of the field of pediatric psychology.
Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address and describe the generalizability of your results to other situations. One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper.
I suggest the following information in the following order: This adds length to the manuscript, reduces reader interest, and detracts from the significance of the research.
This overview should follow directly from the data analysis plan stated in the method Drotar, b. In fact, expertise with IM predicted lower scores on the comprehension test. Organization and Structure Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: However, our data contradict this explanation.a hint about the general direction the discussion section takes.
References: Use APA style. See your APA manual, textbook and the sample paper for examples of how to cite and how to make a reference list.
Make sure that all references mentioned in the text are also mentioned in the reference list and vice versa. Tables and/or Figures: Use APA style.
Tables go at the very end of your paper. In general, I would suggest writing the words of the results section first, and then going back to insert the numbers and statistical information.
Discussion section In your discussion section, relate the results back to your initial hypotheses. The discussion section is less rigid than the other sections in format. You have more freedom here to discuss any relevant issues pertaining to your study.
Be sure to end your Discussion section with a paragraph summarizing the contribution of your study. See the Appendix for some additional APA-style writings tips. Writing an Empirical Paper in APA Style Discussion. Each section of the paper requires at least one sentence in the abstract.
Methods and Results • In scientific writing, it is much more common to paraphrase an. When writing the discus-sion section, it is important to carefully consider all pos-Table 1. Elements to Include in the Discussion State the study’s major findings Explain the meaning and importance of the findings How to Write an Effective Discussion.
When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases.
This is especially important when describing the discovery of significant or unanticipated findings.Download